Monitoring Tissue Oxygen Saturation in Microgravity on Parabolic Flights

Thomas G Smith, Federico Formenti, Peter D Hodkinson, Muska Khpal, Brian P Mackenwells, Nick P Talbot

Abstract


Future spacecraft and crew habitats are anticipated to use a moderately hypobaric and hypoxic cabin atmosphere to reduce the risk of decompression sickness associated with extravehicular activity. This has raised concerns about potential hypoxia-mediated adverse effects on astronauts. Noninvasive technology for measuring tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) has been developed for clinical use and may be helpful in monitoring oxygenation during spaceflight. We conducted a technical evaluation of a handheld StO2 monitor during a series of parabolic flights, and then undertook a preliminary analysis of the data obtained during the flights from six individuals. The StO2 monitor operated normally in all gravity conditions. There was considerable variability in StO2 between and within individuals. Overall, transition to microgravity was associated with a small decrease in StO2 of 1.1 ± 0.3%. This evaluation has established the basic function of this technology in microgravity and demonstrates the potential for exploring its use in space.

References


Bacal K, Beck G, Marratt MR (2008) Hypoxia, hypercarbia, and atmospheric control. In Principles of Clinical Medicine for Space Flight, Barratt MR, Pool SL (eds). New York: Springer

Baranov VM (2011) Physiological analysis of the possible causes of hypoxemia under conditions of weightlessness. Human Physiology 37: 455–460

Blue RS, Pattarini JM, Reyes DP, Mulcahy RA, Garbino A, Mathers CH, Vardiman JL, Castleberry TL, Vanderploeg JM (2014) Tolerance of centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight by medical condition. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 85: 721-729

Blue RS, Riccitello JM, Tizard J, Hamilton RJ, Vanderploeg JM (2012) Commercial spaceflight participant G-force tolerance during centrifuge-simulated suborbital flight. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 83: 929-934

Buckey JC (2006) Space Physiology, New York: Oxford University Press.

Duret J, Pottecher J, Bouzat P, Brun J, Harrois A, Payen JF, Duranteau J (2015) Skeletal muscle oxygenation in severe trauma patients during haemorrhagic shock resuscitation. Critical Care 19: 141

Fatemian M, Kim DY, Poulin MJ, Robbins PA (2001) Very mild exposure to hypoxia for 8 h can induce ventilatory acclimatization in humans. European Journal of Physiology 441: 840-843

Gunga HC, Frommhold M, Hildebrandt W, Kirsch K, Rocker L (1996) Erythropoietin production during flights with pressurised aircrafts. Lancet 348: 416

Karmali F, Shelhamer M (2008) The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts. Acta Astronautica 63: 594-602

Lipcsey M, Woinarski NC, Bellomo R (2012) Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the thenar eminence in anesthesia and intensive care. Annals of Intensive Care 2: 11

Mackenzie I, Viirre E, Vanderploeg JM, Chilvers ER (2007) Zero G in a patient with advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Lancet 370: 566

Martin DS, Levett DZ, Mythen M, Grocott MP (2009) Changes in skeletal muscle oxygenation during exercise measured by near-infrared spectroscopy on ascent to altitude. Critical Care 13 Suppl 5: S7

Neto AS, Pereira VG, Manetta JA, Esposito DC, Schultz MJ (2014) Association between static and dynamic thenar near-infrared spectroscopy and mortality in patients with sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 76: 226-233

Norcross J, Norsk P, Law J, Arias D, Conkin J, Perchonok M, Menon A, Huff J, Fogarty J, Wessel JH, Whitmire S. (2013) Effects of the 8 psia / 32% O2 atmosphere on the human in the spaceflight environment (NASA/TM-2013-217377). National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA

Prisk GK (2014) Microgravity and the respiratory system. European Respiratory Journal 43: 1459-1471

Sandfeld J, Larsen LH, Crenshaw AG, Jensen BR (2013) Muscle oxygenation, EMG, and cardiovascular responses for cabin attendants vs. controls. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 84: 478-485

Scheuring R, Conkin J, Jones JA, Gernhardt ML (2008) Risk assessment of physiological effects of atmospheric composition and pressure in Constellation vehicles. Acta Astronautica 63: 727-739

Smith TG, Chang RW, Robbins PA, Dorrington KL (2013) Commercial air travel and in-flight pulmonary hypertension. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 84: 65-67

Smith TG, Talbot NP, Chang RW, Wilkinson E, Nickol AH, Newman DG, Robbins PA, Dorrington KL (2012) Pulmonary artery pressure increases during commercial air travel in healthy passengers. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 83: 673-676

Turner BE, Hodkinson PD, Timperley AC, Smith TG (2015) Pulmonary artery pressure response to simulated air travel in a hypobaric chamber. Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance 86: 529-534

Van Haren RM, Ryan ML, Thorson CM, Namias N, Livingstone AS, Proctor KG (2013) Bilateral near-infrared spectroscopy for detecting traumatic vascular injury. Journal of Surgical Research 184: 526-532

West JB (2001) Pulmonary gas exchange. In Gravity and the Lung:Llessons from Microgravity, Prisk GK, Paiva M, West JB (eds). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.


Full Text: PG 2-7 -- PDF