Effects of Underwater Arm-Cranking Exercise on Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Activity

Kumiko Ono, Hikaru Kuniyoshi, Yuuki Tanigaki


The purpose of this study was to clarify the beneficial effect of an underwater environment on heart rate (HR) and cardiac autonomic nervous activity (HF) during arm-cranking exercise. Ten healthy young men participated in this study. The arm-cranking exercise (40% peakVO2) was performed for 10 minutes under two conditions: in water and in air. After the exercise, a recovery phase for 30 seconds followed. Changes in HR, VO2, and HF did not different between the conditions. The time constant of the heart rate decay for the first 30 seconds after exercise in the water was less than in air. The results suggest that that cardiac parasympathetic nervous activity influences earlier recovery of HR after exercise in water. The results of our study suggest underwater exercise may be applied to wider areas of health management for individuals returning from space travel or sedentary patients in simulated microgravity environments.


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