John Pierce Wise, Jr., Sandra S. Wise, James Wise, Jane McKay, Michael Browne, Kellie Joyce, Matthew Braun, Catherine Wise, Ryan Duffy, Eben Estell, Jennifer Brown, Christy Gianios, Jr., Michael Mason, Terry Shehata, Dianne Hammond, W. Douglas Thompson, John Pierce Wise, Sr.


As NASA plans future missions to explore the surfaces of the Moon and Mars, it is essential to understand the effects of long-term space travel on human health. It has been observed that microgravity causes changes in the morphology of cells (Crawford-Young). However, more research needs to be done to determine the effects of altered gravity on cellular morphology and metabolism to make long-term space travel a safe reality for the astronauts involved. We hypothesized that altered gravity changes normal cell function resulting in a greater amount of chemical-induced genotoxicity.

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